• Project ID ALARM
  • Project duration 2020-11-01 > 2022-12-31
  • Cost
    • Total EUR 991.268,75 €
    • EU Contr. EUR 991.268,75 €
  • Status Ongoing

Aviation safety can be jeopardised by multiple hazards arising from natural phenomena, e.g., severe weather, Aerosols/gases from natural hazard, space weather, and, though not directly affecting the safety of aviation but the planet, the climatic impact of aviation.


When it comes to severe weather, it is well known that flying through thunderstorms might lead to strong turbulence, wind shear, downbursts, icing, lightning and hail. With climate change on the rise, the weather is expected to have a larger impact on aviation. In the last years alone, the
frequency of storms, winds and rainfall has not only increased, they have become more intense wreaking havoc on the ATM network. Other important factors affecting aviation safety are due to aerosols/gases arising from natural hazards, e.g., fire smokes, desert dust or volcanic ash and SO2
plumes: They are not so frequent as severe weather; however, their effects can be extremely disruptive. Dense smoke clouds from wildfire and dust/sea salt loaded areas in low altitude drastically reduce visibility.

The engine ingestion of dust/smoke/sea salt aerosols can also induce severe damages (erosion, corrosion, pitot-static tube blockage, engine flame out in flight). Volcanic ash and SO2 gases are also major hazards, causing windscreen abrasions, reduction of visibility, damage to aircraft instrumentation and systems, hot corrosion (when sulphate’s coat inside/outside engine surfaces) that calls for extra maintenance, and most importantly stalling of engines due to the melting ash.

Space weather is under-studied as aviation hazard. The immediate and delayed effects on aviation include: the disruption of radio/satellite communication (jeopardising VHF, HF and datalink communications, also those of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems – RPAS); the degradation of
navigation systems, e.g., GNSS based procedures and magnetic compasses; increased radiation exposure to crew and passenger and higher risk for radiation-induced failures of on-board systems.

Last but not least, aviation-induced climate change (also considered herein as a hazard) is not being considered today in ATM decision-making. Facing the continuing expansion of air traffic, the development of a climatic-oriented aviation becomes increasingly challenging.



The overall objective of ALARM (“multi-hAzard monitoring and earLy wARning systeM” (ALARM) is to develop a prototype global multi-hazard monitoring and Early Warning  System (EWS). A global multi-hazard monitoring means near-real time (NRT) and continuous global Earth observations from satellite, with the objective to generate prompt alerts of natural hazards affecting ATM and to provide information for enhancing situational awareness and providing resilience in crisis. NRT data (with delay of delivery from 10 min, to less than 4h) and tailored products from ground-based and satellite systems, will be used to feed models capable of detecting (creation of alert products) and predicting (nowcasting/forecasting) the risk/displacement of:

• particles in suspension and gas derived from natural hazards (volcanic ash and SO2, dust clouds from sandstorms, and smoke from forest fire);
• severe weather situations such as deep convection and extreme weather;
• space weather regarding exposure to increased levels of radiation during flight;
• environmental hotspots potentially contributing to global warming in a large extent.

ALARM EWS plans to provide alert information for the stakeholders about the threat to aviation in three different manners: 1) early warning (geolocation, altitude and level of severity -quantification if available- of the observed hazard); 2) for some cases nowcasting [up to 2h] and 3) forecasting [from 2h to 48h] of hazard evolution at different flight levels. The consortium will analyse the requirements for its inclusion in the yellow SWIM profile.

Specifically, the aim is to enhance situational awareness of all stakeholders in case of multiple hazard crisis by facilitating the transfer of required relevant information to end-users, presenting such information in a user-friendly manner to ATM stakeholders. In summary, anticipating severe hazards and fostering better decision-making.


  • Satavia

This project has received funding from the SESAR Joint Undertaking under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 891467

European Union