Enhanced terminal operations with localiser performance with vertical guidance (LPV) procedures
The solution refers to the use of GNSS-based advanced required navigation performance (A-RNP) approach procedures to enhance terminal area operations (TMA). Vertical guidance along the approach may be based on either barometric (BARO/VNAV) flight management system (FMS) guidance or geometric guidance down to LPV minima based on EGNOS-augmented GPS navigation, which provides localiser-like performance with glide-slope-like vertical guidance. SESAR has worked on the introduction of radius-to-fix (RF) turns onto a short final and during missed approach segments, thereby increasing the flexibility in the design of landing procedures.
Unlike ILS or GBAS, LPV procedures do not require any new equipment at the airport. This makes them an ideal low-cost alternative to increase access to secondary airports that may not be ILS-equipped on all runways. For ILS-equipped runways, the new approach design may be useful either to shorten the flightpath for certain traffic flows or simply to overlay the existing ILS and be used as a fall-back procedure in case of airborne or ground ILS-equipment malfunction.
Exercises in Turin focused on paving the way for the operational implementation of advanced features made possible by GNSS/EGNOS, from the perspective of both ground and air segments. The assessment looked at all aspects of the implementation process, starting from procedure design and coding issues up to avionics behaviour for regional aircraft and operational procedures (i.e. crew and controller workload, situational awareness, etc.). The exercises concluded the following:
• Feasibility for pilots to fly stabilised approaches with both three and four degree glide path angles in clean configuration, while maintaining a good situational awareness and a manageable workload;
• Feasibility for air traffic controllers to manage workload with good situational awareness comparable to the current situation;
• Reduced mileage, resulting in less fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions;
• Increased flight path predictability for air traffic controllers and pilots;
• Increased airport accessibility through the provision of instrument approach procedures to runway ends with no existing published instrument approaches;
• Maximised fuel efficiency and noise reduction when integrated with continuous descent approaches (CDA).
The validation results for this solution are conclusive and sufficient to support a decision for industrialisation. This solution is planned for synchronised deployment in 25 European airports in accordance with the PCP."